FAQs/ Assisted reproduction

Assisted reproduction
Stimulation of Egg Maturation

In this process, known as ovarian stimulation or ovulation induction, a woman takes medication to stimulate the ovaries to make mature eggs at one time.

Assisted reproduction
Spontaneous cycle under ultrasound control

It will be useful to study the ovulatory cycle and to indicate the days suitable for sexual intercourse.

Assisted reproduction
Cycle stimulated with hormones at low doses

The goal is to improve or get an ovulation, also under ultrasound control.

Assisted reproduction
Embryo cryopreservation

Cryopreservation for embryos is used for embryo storage, for example when in vitro fertilization has resulted in more embryos than is currently needed.
Embryos are frozen at the pronuclear or cleavage stages.
The duration of storage time did not have any significant effect on clinical pregnancy.

Assisted reproduction
Oocyte vitrification

Human oocyte cryopreservation is a new technology in which a woman’s eggs (oocytes) are extracted, frozen and stored.
Later, when she is ready to become pregnant, the eggs can be fertilized and transferred to the uterus as embryos.

Assisted reproduction
Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)

Intrauterine Insemination is the placement of a man’s sperm into a woman’s uterus using a long, narrow tube.
Is most effective for treating:

  • women who have scarring or defects of the cervix
  • men who have low sperm counts
  • men who have sperm with low mobility
  • men who cannot get erections
  • men who have retrograde ejaculation ( sperm are ejaculated into the bladder instead of out of the penis )

Intrauterine Insemination can be used in combination with medication that stimulate ovulation, increasing the chance of pregnancy.

Assisted reproduction
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

During the In Vitro Fertilization eggs and sperm are taken from the couple and are incubated together in a dish in a laboratory in order to produce an embryo.
After that, a doctor places the embryo into the woman’s uterus, where it may implant and result a successful pregnancy.
The steps are:

  • Stimulation of Egg Maturation
  • Egg Retrieval
  • Fertilization
  • Embryo Transfer
Assisted reproduction

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is used as a part of an in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment in order to help you to become pregnant.
ICSI is the most successful treatment for men who are infertile.
ICSI only requires one sperm, which is injected directly into the egg. The fertilised egg (embryo) is then transferred to the uterus.

Assisted reproduction
Egg Donation

This can be used when a woman does not produce healthy eggs that can be fertilized.
An egg donor undergoes an ovary stimulation and egg retrieval steps of IVF.
Egg donation may be helpful for women who:

  • have primary ovary insufficiency
  • have had chemotherapy or radation therapy
  • have had surgical removal of the ovaries
  • are carriers of known genetic diseases
  • are infertile because of poor egg quality
Assisted reproduction
Testicular biopsy

A testicular biopsy is a technique to remove a sample of tissue from one or both testicles in order to examine it under a microscope to evaluate the male fertility.

Assisted reproduction

A seminogramme or spermiogramme is one of the basic studies performed on men to determine the sperm quality.
The most relevant parameters are: sperm count, sperm mobility, sperm morphology.

Assisted reproduction
Oocyte bank

see Oocyte Vitrification. See Egg Donation.

Assisted reproduction
Sperm bank

A sperm bank is a facility that collects and stores human sperm from sperm donors. It is used by women who need sperm-donor sperm to achieve pregnancy.
The process for introducing the sperm into the woman is called artificial insemination, which is a form of third part reproduction.

Assisted reproduction
Surrogates and Gestational Carriers

If a woman is unable to carry a pregnancy to term, she and her partner may choose a surrogate or a gestational carrier.
A surrogate is a woman inseminated with the sperm from the male partner of the couple. The resulting child will be biologically related to the surrogate and the male partner.
Surrogacy can be used when the female of the couple does not produce healthy eggs that can be fertilized.
In contrast, a gestational carrier is implanted with an embryo that is not biologically related to her. This alternative can be used when a woman produces healthy eggs but is unable to carry a pregnancy to term. If needed, egg or sperm donation can be used in this situation.

Assisted reproduction
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and Screening.

Preimplantation genetic testing is a technique used to identify genetic defects in embryos created through in vitro fertilization (IVF) before pregnancy.
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) refers specifically to when one or both genetic parents has a known genetic abnormality and testing is performed on an embryo to determine if it also carries a genetic abnormality.
In contrast, preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) refers to techniques where embryos from presumed chromosomally normal genetic parents are screened for aneuploidy.
Because only unaffected embryos are transferred to the uterus for implantation, preimplantation genetic testing provides an alternative to current postconception diagnostic procedures (ie, amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling), which are frequently followed by the difficult decision of pregnancy termination if results are unfavorable.
It is an attractive means of preventing heritable genetic disease, thereby eliminating the dilemma of pregnancy termination following unfavorable prenatal diagnosis.